How Dramatron Empowers Co-Creative Scriptwriting with AI Assistance

21 May 2024


(1) PIOTR MIROWSKI and KORY W. MATHEWSON, DeepMind, United Kingdom and Both authors contributed equally to this research;

(2) JAYLEN PITTMAN, Stanford University, USA and Work done while at DeepMind;

(3) RICHARD EVANS, DeepMind, United Kingdom.

Abstract and Intro

Storytelling, The Shape of Stories, and Log Lines

The Use of Large Language Models for Creative Text Generation

Evaluating Text Generated by Large Language Models

Participant Interviews

Participant Surveys

Discussion and Future Work

Conclusions, Acknowledgements, and References









We present Dramatron: an interactive co-writing tool which allows writers to generate scripts from a provided log line. Hierarchical story generation with explicit narrative structures and characters helps to generate more coherent text, especially when generating text as long as theatre scripts and screenplays. We conducted a user study with 15 theatre and film industry professionals and distilled their reflections collected through open-ended qualitative interviews and a short survey. We also present feedback from a creative team that produced scripts co-written with Dramatron in public performances at a theatre festival, alongside two reviews from professional reviewers. In summary, Dramatron can be used as a co-creative writing tool allowing human authors to write screenplays and theatre scripts alongside LLMs. This work invites further questions on the nature of co-creativity and on the ethics surrounding LLMs.


We would also like to thank anonymous reviewers for their time, energy, and insightful feedback, as well as our colleagues at DeepMind for creative inspiration and critical input on the scientific, ethical and legal aspects of this work, in particular: Tara Thomas, Kevin McKee, Boxi Wu, Antonia Paterson, Murray Shanahan, Robert Dickens, Aliya Ahmad, Danielle Breen, Sanah Choudhry, Joel Moss, Yan Lai, Jon Small, Will Hawkins, Laura Weidinger, Lisa Anne Hendricks, Mia Glaese, Geoffrey Irving, Jack Rae, Natalie Lambert, Raia Hadsell, Shakir Mohamed and Doina Precup.

We are immensely grateful to the anonymous participants who took part in this study and who made it possible. Finally, we are indebted to the talented performers and production companies Rapid Fire Theatre in Edmonton, Canada and Transitional Forms in Toronto, Canada without whom we would never have been able to fully realise the generated scripts. Thank you for providing your artistic voices in this human-machine co-creative dialogue.


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